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What Is the Meaning of Variables in Research?

Independent and Dependent Variables

❶So even the program can be considered a variable which can be made up of a number of sub-variables.

Intervening and Moderator Variables

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This article is a part of the guide:
Dependent and Independent Variables

In scientific research, scientists, technicians and researchers utilize a variety of methods and variables when conducting their experiments. In simple terms, a variable represents a measurable attribute that changes or varies across the experiment whether comparing results between multiple groups, multiple people or even when using a single person in an experiment conducted over time.

In all, there are six common variable types. Variables represents the measurable traits that can change over the course of a scientific experiment. In all there are six basic variable types: In general, experiments purposefully change one variable, which is the independent variable. But a variable that changes in direct response to the independent variable is the dependent variable. The change in an ice cube's position represents the independent variable.

The result of whether the ice cube melts or not is the dependent variable. Intervening variables link the independent and dependent variables, but as abstract processes, they are not directly observable during the experiment.

For example, if studying the use of a specific teaching technique for its effectiveness, the technique represents the independent variable, while the completion of the technique's objectives by the study participants represents the dependent variable, while the actual processes used internally by the students to learn the subject matter represents the intervening variables.

By modifying the effect of the intervening variables -- the unseen processes -- moderator variables influence the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Researchers measure moderator variables and take them into consideration during the experiment. Sometimes certain characteristics of the objects under scrutiny are deliberately left unchanged.

These are known as constant or controlled variables. In the ice cube experiment, one constant or controllable variable could be the size and shape of the cube. By keeping the ice cubes' sizes and shapes the same, it's easier to measure the differences between the cubes as they melt after shifting their positions, as they all started out as the same size.

Two questions help to identify the independent variable. First, does it come before other variable in time? Second, if the variables occur at the same time, does the researcher suggest that one variable has an impact on another variable? Independent variables affect or have an impact on other variables. When independent variable is present, the dependent variable is also present, and with each unit of increase in the independent variable, there is an increase or decrease in the dependent variable also.

In other words, the variance in dependent variable is accounted for by the independent variable. Dependent variable is also referred to as criterion variable. In statistical analysis a variable is identified by the symbol X for independent variable and by the symbol Y for the dependent variable. In the research vocabulary different labels have been associated with the independent and dependent variables like: Research studies indicate that successful new product development has an influence on the stock market price of a company.

That is, the more successful the new product turns out to be, the higher will be the stock market price of that firm. Therefore, the success of the New product is the independent variable , and stock market price the dependent variable. The degree of perceived success of the new product developed will explain the variance in the stock market price of the company.

Moderating Variables A moderating variable is one that has a strong contingent effect on the independent variable-dependent variable relationship. That is, the presence of a third variable the moderating variable modifies the original relationship between the independent and the dependent variable. For example, a strong relationship has been observed between the quality of library facilities X and the performance of the students Y. Although this relationship is supposed to be true generally, it is nevertheless contingent on the interest and inclination of the students.

It means that only those students who have the interest and inclination to use the library will show improved performance in their studies. In this relationship interest and inclination is moderating variable i.

Intervening Variables A basic causal relationship requires only independent and dependent variable. A third type of variable, the intervening variable, appears in more complex causal relationships. It comes between the independent and dependent variables and shows the link or mechanism between them. Advances in knowledge depend not only on documenting cause and effect relationship but also on specifying the mechanisms that account for the causal relation.

In a sense, the intervening variable acts as a dependent variable with respect to independent variable and acts as an independent variable toward the dependent variable. A theory of suicide states that married people are less likely to commit suicide than single people. The assumption is that married people have greater social integration e.

Hence a major cause of one type of suicide was that people lacked a sense of belonging to group family. Thus this theory can be restated as a three-variable relationship: Specifying the chain of causality makes the linkages in theory clearer and helps a researcher test complex relationships.

Look at another finding that five-day work week results in higher productivity. What is the process of moving from the independent variable to the dependent variable? What exactly is that factor which theoretically affects the observed phenomenon but cannot be seen? Its effects must be inferred from the effects of independent variable on the dependent variable. In this work-week hypothesis, one might docsity.

To rephrase the statement it could be: Extraneous Variables An almost infinite number of extraneous variables EV exist that might conceivably affect a given relationship. Some can be treated as independent or moderating variables, but most must either be assumed or excluded from the study. Such variables have to be identified by the researcher. In order to identify the true relationship between the independent and the dependent variable, the effect of the extraneous variables may have to be controlled.

This is necessary if we are conducting an experiment where the effect of the confounding factors has to be controlled. Confounding factors is another name used for extraneous variables.

Relationship among Variables Once the variables relevant to the topic of research have been identified, then the researcher is interested in the relationship among them. A statement containing the variable is called a proposition. It may contain one or more than one variable. The proposition having one variable in it may be called as univariate proposition, those with two variables as bivariate proposition, and then of course multivariate containing three or more variables.


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Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator of the dependent and independent variables in research ; Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & .

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The dependent variable is what is affected by the independent variable-- your effects or outcomes. For example, if you are studying the effects of a new educational program on student achievement, the program is the independent variable and your measures of achievement are the dependent ones.

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Unlike extraneous variables, moderator variables are measured and taken into consideration. Typical moderator variables in TESL and language acquisition research (when they are not the major focus of the study) include the sex, age, culture, or language proficiency of the subjects. The key to designing any experiment is to look at what research variables could affect the outcome. There are many types of variable but the most important, for the vast majority of research methods, are the independent and dependent variables.

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What are Examples of Variables in Research? October 22, Regoniel, Patrick A. Comments In the course of writing your thesis, one of the first terms that you encounter is the word variable. Lecture notes Research Methodology devidas 7 August Variables And Types Of Variables-Research Methods-Handouts, Lecture notes for Research Methodology. (e.g. amount of education). The second type of concept and measures of the concept are variables. A variable is defined as anything that varies or changes in value. Variables take on.