For example, when I have two grains of sand, I do not have two sands; I have sand. There is less sand in your pile than in mine, not fewer sands. However, there could be the many "sands of Africa" — either many distinct stretches of sand, or distinct types of sand of interest to geologists or builders, or simply the allusive The Sands of Mars.
There are several isotopes of oxygen, which might be referred to as different oxygens. In casual speech, oxygen might be used as shorthand for "an oxygen atom", but in this case, it is not a mass noun, so one can refer to "multiple oxygens in the same molecule".
One would interpret Bob's wisdoms as various pieces of Bob's wisdom that is, don't run with scissors, defer to those with greater knowledge , deceits as a series of instances of deceitful behavior lied on income tax, dated my wife , and the different idlenesses of the worker as plural distinct manifestations of the mass concept of idleness or as different types of idleness, "bone lazy" versus "no work to do".
The pair specie and species both come from a Latin word meaning "kind", but they do not form a singular-plural pair. In Latin, specie is the ablative singular form, while species is the nominative form, which happens to be the same in both singular and plural. In English, species behaves similarly —as a noun with identical singular and plural— while specie is treated as a mass noun, referring to money in the form of coins the idea is of "[payment] in kind".
Certain words which were originally plural in form have come to be used almost exclusively as singulars usually uncountable ; for example billiards , measles , news , mathematics , physics etc.
Some of these words, such as news , are strongly and consistently felt as singular by fluent speakers. These words are usually marked in dictionaries with the phrase "plural in form but singular in construction" or similar wording. Others, such as aesthetics , are less strongly or consistently felt as singular; for the latter type, the dictionary phrase "plural in form but singular or plural in construction" recognizes variable usage.
Some words of foreign origin are much better known in their foreign- morphology plural form, and are often not even recognized by English speakers as having plural form; descriptively , in English morphology many of these simply are not in plural form, because English has naturalized the foreign plural as the English singular.
Usage of the original singular may be considered pedantic, hypercorrective , or incorrect. Magazine was derived from Arabic via French. It was originally plural, but in French and English it is always regarded as singular. Some words have unusually formed singulars and plurals, but develop "normal" singular-plural pairs by back-formation.
For example, pease modern peas was in origin a singular with plural peasen. However, pease came to be analysed as plural by analogy, from which a new singular pea was formed; the spelling of pease was also altered accordingly, surviving only in the name of the dish pease porridge or pease pudding.
Similarly, termites was the three-syllable plural of termes ; this singular was lost, however, and the plural form reduced to two syllables. Syringe is a back-formation from syringes , itself the plural of syrinx , a musical instrument. Cherry is from Norman French cherise. Phases was once the plural of phasis , but the singular is now phase. The nonstandard, offensive, and now obsolete Chinee and Portugee singulars are back-formations from the standard Chinese and Portuguese. Kudos is a singular Greek word meaning praise, but is often taken to be a plural.
At present, however, kudo is considered an error, though the usage is becoming more common [ citation needed ] as kudos becomes better known. The name of the Greek sandwich style gyros is increasingly undergoing a similar transformation. The term, from Latin, for the main upper arm flexor in the singular is the biceps muscle from biceps brachii ; however, many English speakers take it to be a plural and refer to the muscle of only one arm, by back-formation, as a bicep.
The correct —although very seldom used— Latin plural is bicipites. The word sastrugi hard ridges on deep snow is of Russian origin and its singular is sastruga ; but the imagined Latin-type singular sastrugus has sometimes been used. Geographical names may be treated as singular even if they are plural in form, if they are regarded as representing a single entity such as a country: The United Nations is also treated as singular.
However, if the sense is a group of geographical objects, such as islands or mountains, a plural-form name will be treated as plural: The Hebrides are a group of islands off the coast of Scotland. Words such as army , company , crowd , family , fleet , government , majority , mess , number , pack , party and team may refer either to a single entity or the members of the set composing it. If the latter meaning is intended, the word though singular in form may be treated as if it were a plural, in that it may take a plural verb and be replaced with a plural pronoun: Fowler describes, in British English they are "treated as singular or plural at discretion"; Fowler notes that occasionally a "delicate distinction" is made possible by discretionary plurals: The following rules apply to the plurals of numerical terms such as dozen , score , hundred , thousand , million , and similar:.
Nouns used attributively to qualify other nouns are generally in the singular, even though for example, a dog catcher catches more than one dog, and a department store has more than one department. This is true even for some binary nouns where the singular form is not found in isolation, such as a trouser mangle or the scissor kick. This is also true where the attribute noun is itself qualified with a number, such as a twenty-dollar bill , a ten-foot pole or a two-man tent. The plural is used for pluralia tantum nouns: The plural may be used to emphasise the plurality of the attribute, especially in British English but very rarely in American English: The plural is also more common with irregular plurals for various attributions: The singular and plural forms of loanwords from other languages where countable nouns used attributively are, unlike English, plural and come at the end of the word are sometimes modified when entering English usage.
For example, in Spanish, nouns composed of a verb and its plural object usually have the verb first and noun object last e. However, when entering English, the final s of chupacabras was treated as a plural of the compound i.
In the names of sports teams, sometimes a noun will be given a regular plural in -s even though that noun in normal use has an irregular plural form a particular case of headless nouns as described above. For example, there are teams called the Florida Marlins and the Toronto Maple Leafs , even though the word marlin normally has its plural identical to the singular, and the plural of leaf is leaves.
When a sport team's name is plural, the corresponding singular is often used to denote a member of that team; for example a player for the Cincinnati Reds may be referred to as a Cincinnati Red. This also applies to the St. Louis Blues ice hockey team, even though it is named after the song the " St.
Louis Blues ", and thus blues was originally a singular identical to its plural. When a team's name is plural in form but cannot be singularized by removing an -s , as in Boston Red Sox , the plural is sometimes used as a singular a player may be referred to as "a Red Sox". Oftentimes, the singular "Red Sox" will be pronounced as if it were "Red Sock", even though the spelling suggests otherwise. When a team's name is singular, as in Miami Heat and Colorado Avalanche , the same singular word may also sometimes be used to denote a player a Heat , an Avalanche.
When referring to more than one player, it is normal to use Heat players or Avalanche players although in the latter case the team's plural-form nickname Avs is also available. Certain adjectives can be used, uninflected, as plurals denoting people of the designated type. For example, unemployed and homeless can be used to mean "unemployed people" and "homeless people", as in There are two million unemployed. Such usage is common with the definite article, to denote people of a certain type generally: This is common with certain nationalities: In the case of most nationalities, however, the plural of the demonym noun is used for this purpose: Cases where the adjective formation is possible, but the noun provides a commonly used alternative, include the Scottish or more commonly the Scots , the Danish or the Danes , the Finnish or the Finns , the Swedish or the Swedes.
The noun is normally used anyway when referring to specific sets of people five Frenchmen , a few Spaniards , although the adjective may be used especially in case of a group of mixed or unspecified sex, if the demonym nouns are gender-specific: In common parlance, plural simply means "more than one". As a grammatical term, however, it is not limited in this way, although that is its default meaning. Any quantity that includes decimal precision is plural.
This includes 1 followed by any number of zeros. It is normal to say 1. Fractions are themselves singular or plural depending on the numerator e. Any zero quantity can be plural or singular, though plural is the default. So the following plurals are standard. However, if it has already been established that one item was in question, one can use no to deny that such an item exists in the singular:. The interrogative pronouns who and what generally take singular agreement,  e.
In some cases, a plural verb can be used when the answer is expected to be plural . When followed by a plural predicative complement, a plural verb must be used: Following which , a singular verb suggests a singular answer, and a plural verb suggests a plural answer: When asking How many?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Irregular plurals. Plural form of words ending in -us. The normal plural rule applies to plural nouns. A military phalanx is pluralized phalanxes. In engineering, drafting, surveying, and geodesy, and in weight and balance calculations for aircraft, a datum plural datums or data is a reference point, surface, or axis on an object or the Earth's surface against which measurements are made.
Tolkien popularized dwarves ; he intended the changed spelling to differentiate the " dwarf " fantasy race in his novels from the cuter and simpler beings common in fairy tales, but his usage has since spread.
Multiple astronomical dwarf stars and multiple nonmythological short human beings , however, remain dwarfs. Staves is rare in North America except in the sense of "magic rod", or the musical notation tool ; stave of a barrel or cask is a back-formation from staves , which is its plural. See the Plural to singular by back-formation section below. Archived 17 March at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 6 April The history of the English language. Norton, , pp.
Retrieved 26 August The New Hacker's Dictionary. But note that 'Unixen' and 'Twenexen' are never used. It has been suggested that this is because '-ix' and '-ex' are sometimes Latin singular endings that attract a Latinate plural. But more often scientists and researchers think of data as a singular mass entity like information , and most people now follow this in general usage. Archived from the original on 4 November Retrieved 20 October Those who defend "The data is You'll probably never hear anyone ask: Archived from the original on 11 February Oxford Dictionaries - English.
Retrieved 29 August Oxford University Press, , The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Retrieved from " https: English grammar Grammatical number. Webarchive template wayback links All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from May Use dmy dates from November Views Read Edit View history.
Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. On the basis of th i s thesis , t he report advocates [ T h e thesis f i rs t gives a short description [ The date on which the doctorate was obtained will be considered to be the date on. The cen tr a l thesis o f t his research [ L a tesis ce ntr al de es te proyecto [ Author s o f thesis a r e encouraged to send an abstract [ Se anima a l os auto res de tesis a m and ar un r esumen [ Most frequent English dictionary requests: Please click on the reason for your vote: This is not a good example for the translation above.
The wrong words are highlighted. It does not match my search. It should not be summed up with the orange entries The translation is wrong or of bad quality. Thank you very much for your vote! You helped to increase the quality of our service. Even so, was a likewise serious error to do a [ We likewise request [ Doctorado en Derecho [ Back in , Steve Aronson helped me as a student [ The judging board may propose [ En efecto, Smith [ Achieve a clear support from Latin American and the Caribbean to [ Lograr un claro respaldo [ I know very well how much work had and all your responsibilities and so I [ To students we offer the possibility of [ A estudiantes ofrecemos la posibilidad [ He is a graduate of the Escuela Libre de Derecho in Mexico [ Actually she is editing a documentary on coinicidence and [ Actualmente edita un documental sobre las coincidencias y [ PT The report contains some aspects that I believe to be fair and others with which I disagree, [ PT El informe contiene algunos aspectos [ When submitted to this analysis, [
The Introduction sections of some Ph.D theses were examined to determine the significance of verb form in reporting verbs like find or show.: One of the principal theses of Isaiah Berlin, the English philosopher, was that most of the cardinal values to which human beings aspire clash.: His theses drawn from cultural and analytic vertices, .
Jun 28, · From Latin thesis, from Ancient Greek θέσις (thésis, “ a proposition, a statement, a thing laid down, thesis in rhetoric, thesis in prosody ”). Pronunciation [ .
12 rows · The noun thesis has a Greek root, which is the derivation of the plural . Jan 18, · thesis / thee siss/ • noun (pl. theses / thee seez/) 1 a statement or theory put forward to be maintained or proved. 2 a long essay or dissertation involving personal research, written as part of a university degree.
The noun thesis adheres to the standard rules for mba thesis on job satisfaction: Methods and perspectives plural thesis deutsch with mallett. Table shows the . The book's central thesis is that propaganda influences the masses in important ways. Recent Examples of thesis from the Web The thesis was presented to an academy affiliated with the F.S.B., Russia’s domestic intelligence agency, that studies cryptography.