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Essay/Term paper: Schizophrenia

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❶With antipsychotic medication, however, many people with schizophrenia are able to live in the outside world.

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I. Description and Classification
Schizophrenia Research Paper Outline
Schizophrenia Research Paper

Delusions are the primary example of abnormal thought content in schizophrenia. Delusional beliefs conflict with reality and are tenaciously held, despite evidence to the contrary. There are several types of delusions. Delusions of control is the belief that one is being manipulated by an external force, often a powerful individual or organization e. In contrast, some patients express the conviction that they are victims of persecution or an organized plot, and these beliefs are referred to as delusions of persecution.

Hallucinations are among the most subjectively distressing symptoms experienced by schizophrenia patients. These perceptual distortions vary among patients and can be auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile. The majority of hallucinations are auditory in nature and typically involve voices.

The second most common form of hallucination is visual. Visual hallucinations often entail the perception of distortions in the physical environment, especially in the faces and bodies of other people. Other perceptual distortions that are commonly reported by schizophrenia patients include feeling as if parts of the body are distorted in size or shape, feeling as if an object is closer or farther away than it actually is, feeling numbness, tingling, or burning, being hypersensitive to sensory stimuli, and perceiving objects as flat and colorless.

In addition to these distinctive perceptual abnormalities, persons suffering from schizophrenia often report difficulties in focusing their attention or sustaining concentration on a task. It is important to note that in order for an unsubstantiated belief or sensory experience to quality as a delusion or hallucination, the individual must experience it within a clear sensorium e. Thus, for example, if a patient reports hearing something that sounds like voices when alone, but adds that he or she is certain that this is a misinterpretation of a sound, such as the wind blowing leaves, this would not constitute an auditory hallucination.

Thus the term thought disorder is frequently used by researchers and practitioners to refer to the disorganized speech that often occurs in schizophrenia. Problems in the form of speech are reflected in abnormalities in the organization and coherent expression of ideas to others.

One common abnormality of form, incoherent speech, is characterized by seemingly unrelated images or fragments of thoughts that are incomprehensible to the listener. The term loose association refers to the tendency to abruptly shift to a topic that has no apparent association with the previous topic.

In general, the overall content of loosely associated speech may be easier to comprehend than incoherent speech. In perseverative speech, words, ideas, or both are continuously repeated, as if the patient is unable to shift to another idea.

Clang association is the utterance of rhyming words that follow each other e. Patients choose words for their similarity in sound rather than their syntax, often producing a string of rhyming words. The overt behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia fall in two general areas: Motor abnormalities, including mannerisms, stereotyped movements, and unusual posture, are common among schizophrenia patients.

Other common signs include bizarre facial expressions, such as repeated grimacing or staring, and repeated peculiar gestures that often involve complex behavioral sequences. As with other symptoms of the psychosis, the manifestation of motor abnormalities varies among individuals.

Schizophrenia patients sometimes mimic the behavior of others, known as echopraxia, or repeat their own movements, known as stereotyped behaviors. Although a subgroup of patients demonstrate heightened levels of activity, including motoric excitement e.

At the latter extreme, some exhibit catatonic immobility and assume unusual postures that are maintained for extended periods of time. Some may also demonstrate waxy flexibility, a condition in which patients do not resist being placed into strange positions that they then maintain. Catatonia has decreased dramatically in recent decades, so that it is now rare. Several researchers have attributed this decline to the introduction of antipsychotic medication described later.

In the domain of interpersonal interactions, schizophrenia patients frequently demonstrate behaviors that are perceived as bizarre or inappropriate by others. For example, it is not uncommon for patients to use socially unacceptable language and unusual tones of voice, or to show overly dependent or intrusive behavior.

Another common symptom, inappropriate affect, involves unusual emotional reactions to events and experiences. For example, patients may laugh at a sad or somber occasion, or be enraged by insignificant events. Finally, many patients manifest increasingly poor hygiene as their illness progresses.

Their appearance may also be marked by disheveled clothing or inappropriate clothing, such as gloves and coats in the summer. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be classified into the general categories of positive and negative. Positive symptoms involve behavioral excesses and most of the symptoms described earlier fall in to this category e.

In contrast, negative symptoms involve behavioral deficits. Examples include fiat affect blunted expressions of emotion , apathy, and social withdrawal. In the domain of verbal expression, schizophrenia patients who manifest a very low rate of verbal output are described as showing poverty of speech. Patients whose speech is normal in quantity, but lacks meaning, suffer from poverty of content. Recently, some researchers have suggested that positive and negative symptoms may be caused by different neural mechanisms.

It is important to mention that a reduction in overt displays of emotion does not necessarily imply that patients have less intense subjective emotional experiences than the average person. In fact, recent findings indicate that blunted emotional expressions can coexist with intense subjective feelings of emotion. According to DSM-IV, patients must show two or more of the preceding five symptoms to meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.

Thus, no one of these symptoms is required for the diagnosis. Furthermore, the following four criteria must also be met: Because the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are relatively broad, with no one essential symptom, there is a great deal of variability among patients in their symptom profiles.

It has therefore been proposed that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple causes. It is also the case, however, that patients must show a marked and persistent impairment to meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Thus, those who meet criteria for the diagnosis are significantly impaired in everyday functioning.

For many individuals who are diagnosed with schizophrenia, independent functioning is never achieved. The DSM lists five subtypes of schizophrenia. Disorganized schizophrenia is distinguished by extremely incoherent speech and behavior, as well as blunted or inappropriate affect. In catatonic schizophrenia, the clinical picture is dominated by abnormalities in movement and posture, such as those described earlier.

Patients classified as having undifferentiated schizophrenia do not meet criteria for any of the previous subtypes. Finally, the diagnosis of residual schizophrenia is applied to patients who have had at least one episode of schizophrenia and who continue to show functional impairment, but who do not currently manifest any positive symptoms. During the late s and early s, Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler provided the first conceptualizations of schizophrenia.

Kraepelin included negativism, hallucinations, delusions, stereotyped behaviors, attentional difficulties, and emotional dysfunction as major symptoms of the disorder.

In contrast to Kraepelin, Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist, proposed a broader view of dementia praecox, with a more theoretical emphasis. He believed this abnormality accounted for the problems of thought, emotional expression, decision making, and social interaction associated with schizophrenia. In the early to mids, American psychiatrists continued to use a broad definition of schizophrenia.

The distinction between process and reactive schizophrenia was considered important, however, because it was assumed to distinguish between cases characterized by gradual deterioration process and cases that were precipitated by acute stress reactive. During this time, some clinicians and researchers viewed the specific diagnostic criteria for the major mental illnesses schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression as artificial and discretionary, and used instead flexible and inconsistent standards for diagnoses.

Studies that compared the rates of disorder across nations revealed that schizophrenia was diagnosed at a much higher rate in the United States than in Great Britain and some other countries. This national difference resulted from the use of broader criteria for diagnosing schizophrenia in the United States.

Many patients who were diagnosed as having depression or bipolar disorder in Britain were diagnosed with schizophrenia in the United States.

Because subsequent revisions in the DSM have included more restrictive criteria for schizophrenia, U. In addition to a more restrictive definition of schizophrenia, subsequent editions of the DSM have included additional diagnostic categories that contain similar symptoms. The diagnostic category of schizophreniform disorder was also added. This diagnosis is given when the patient shows the typical symptoms of schizophrenia, but does not meet the criterion of 6 months of continuous illness.

Although there is evidence of cross-national differences in the rate of schizophrenia, the differences are not large i. It is, in fact, striking that the rate of occurrence is so consistent across cultures. The modal age at onset of schizophrenia is in early adulthood, usually before 25 years of age. Thus most patients have not had the opportunity to marry or establish a stable work history before the onset of the illness. As a result of this, and the often chronic nature of the illness, many patients never attain financial independence.

It is relatively rare for preadolescent children to receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Similarly, it is rare for individuals beyond the age of 40 to experience a first episode of the illness. Although it has traditionally been assumed that there is no sex difference in the rates of schizophrenia, some recent research findings indicate that a somewhat larger proportion of males than females meet the DSM-IV criteria for the disorder.

Nonetheless, the overall rates do not differ dramatically for men and women. It is well established, however, that women are more likely to have a later onset of illness, as well as a better prognosis. Women also show a higher level of interpersonal and occupational functioning during the period prior to illness onset.

The reasons for this sex difference are not known, but it has been proposed by several theorists that the female sex hormone, estrogen, may function in attenuating the severity of the illness. Compared with the general population averages, schizophrenia patients tend to have significantly lower incomes and educational levels. Poor urban inner city districts, inhabited by the lowest socioeconomic class, contain the largest proportion of schizophrenia patients.

There is a sharp contrast between the rates of schizophrenia in the lowest socioeconomic class and all other levels, including the next higher level. Findings from various cultures suggest that rates of schizophrenia are almost two times higher in the lowest social class group compared with the next lowest. These social class differences appear to be a partial consequence of the debilitating nature of the illness.

The social-drift theory suggests that during the development of schizophrenia, people drift into poverty. When the incomes and educational levels of the parents of patients are compared with those of the general population, the differences are not as striking. There is, nonetheless, evidence that patients do come from families where the incomes and educational backgrounds of the parents are slightly below the average.

These findings have led researchers to conclude that there may be a causal link between social class and risk for the illness. The sociogenic hypothesis posits that situational factors associated with low social class, such as degrading treatment from society, low levels of education, and few opportunities for achievement and reward, produce stress that contributes to the risk for schizophrenia. Before the introduction of antipsychotic medications in , the majority of patients spent most of their lives in institutional settings.

It is very important to find the medication that controls symptoms without causing side effects. Convenience is also important. Some medications need to be taken two, three, or even four times a day. Others may be taken just once a day. People are more likely to remember to take a medication once a day than several times a day. Some people profer to get injections every month of long-lasting medication.

Taking medications regularly is the best way to prevent repeated illness and hospitalization. Schizophrenia Essay, term paper, research paper: Psychology See all college papers and term papers on Psychology. Need a different custom essay on Psychology? Buy a custom essay on Psychology. Need a custom research paper on Psychology?

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Delusions and hallucinations are often reduced, but difficulty of making decision and remembering tend to remain. There is another medication called Atypical antipsychotics which act in different ways for older patients. However the medications work in many ways and it works very differently for each person and usually has some unpleasant side-effects. To develop the medication without side-effects are encouraged in the future.

Besides the medication, one very important treatment is the support of family and friends. Also, training for socialize skills and positive thought are helpful for patients to engage society. Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT is one that has been successfully for patients to recover from symptoms of delusions, hallucinations, or depressions.

However, some patients still attempt suicides. As one of symptoms shows that it has hallucinations and delusions, the voice tells patient to kill themselves or order them to do a criminal act. That is the fear side of the schizophrenia affect. There are some criminal incidents by people shows these symptoms or typically cult group. They strongly believed that they have voice from God and given a special powers to protect themselves from people who are causing to destroy this world.

In fact, nobody mentioned about any serious mental disorder about him. Probably they were minded controlled at first, but as they belief become stronger, they will begin to be not able to tell the difference between what is real and what is just imagination.

Many of those believers were typically well on some academic study knowledge when they were at school, but they had wither no friends or had poor relationships with their family, and are usually isolated from society since they were young.

This applies to most of the common symptoms of schizophrenia. Mass suicide of cult group is a typical action for people who believe in cults. Shakil, at the age of 32, was founded by his brother after several years since Shakil was missing from his family home.

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Term Paper on Schizophrenia Posted on February 15 by Todd Hale Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which severely impacts the way 1% of people worldwide think, feel, and act.

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- Comparison Contrast Paper Introduction Schizophrenia is described as a very severe, chronic, and debilitating cognitive or psychological problem that is highly characterized with increased mortality and morbidity, heavy burden to the public health care and socioeconomic development in terms of treatment and management, and increased risks to a plethora of life threatening adverse health events and .

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Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by some, but not necessarily all, of the following features: emotional blunting, intellectual deterioration, social isolation, disorganized speech, behavior delusions, and hallucinations. “In the area of major mental illness, specifically Schizophrenia, excluding biological or neurological factors from research is a liability for research and clinical efforts because Schizophrenia is such a complex Biopsychosocial phenomenon” (Farmer & Pandurangi, , p. )/5(10).

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Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, emotion, and behavior. This research paper discusses the symptoms, etiology, treatment, and other pertinent issues concerning this mental illness. Schizophrenia Research Paper Outline. I. Description and Classification. A. Symptoms. 1. Delusions. 2. Hallucinations. 3. You can order a custom essay, term paper, research paper, thesis and dissertation on Schizophrenia topics from our professional custom writing service which provides students with high-quality custom written papers at an affordable cost.