Pre-test questions can be asked, and arrangements can be made for the follow-up. Face-to-face interviews are difficult to organise. If the interviews are country-wide, a national field force is required. The subject may be complex and demand a personal briefing, which is expensive to arrange when interviewers are scattered geographically. Monitoring and controlling face-to-face interviews is more difficult than with telephone interviews.
Face-to-face interviews need to have a supervisor in attendance for part of the time and check-backs, by visit or post, must be organised. For the most part, however, the interviewer is working in isolation and the quality of the work has a considerable dependency on the conscientiousness of the individual. The cost of face-to-face interviews is considerably higher than the cost of carrying out telephone interviews. Face-to-face interviews are time consuming because of the travel time between respondents.
The prior commitments of the field force and the delays caused by questionnaires being mailed out and returned, normally mean that at least a two-week period is necessary for organising a face-to-face interviewing project. A month is more reasonable. A programme of business-to-business interviews may have less personal interviews than a consumer study but they too take an inordinate amount of time to organise as the researchers struggle to set up interviews in the diaries of busy managers.
In favourable circumstances, perhaps five to six minute interviews with managers in industry can be completed in a day over the telephone. In the same time only 1 or 2 interviews can be achieved face-to-face. The telephone is quicker and cheaper than face-to-face interviews — there is no time wasted in travel between interview points.
There are sometimes good reasons for not using telephone interviews. Visuals are sometimes difficult to use and, if respondents need to consider a number of pre-determined factors in order to test their views, it is often hard for the respondents to hold more than five or six factors in their mind.
The lack of personal contact prohibits the interviewer assessing respondents and obtaining an extra feel for what is behind the reply. Despite these limitations, the advantages are considerable and the method is likely to continue to make inroads against face-to-face interviews.
The factor that influences the response rate of a postal survey more than anything else is the interest that respondents have in the subject. A postal or e-survey of customers is likely to achieve a higher response than one of non-customers because there is an interest in and a relationship between customers and the sponsor of the study.
In contrast, respondents receiving a questionnaire through the post enquiring about the type of pen they use would most probably yield a low response less than 5 per cent is likely , because the subject is not compelling. Researchers should avoid using postal surveys except when respondents are highly motivated to answer. Self-completion surveys depend on suitable databases containing the correct names and postal or e-mail addresses of respondents.
If lists are out-of-date, contain inaccuracies in spelling of the names and addresses, or are made up of unsuitable respondents, the questionnaires will fall on stony ground and the response rates will be low. Thanks to technological advancements, online surveys — or e-surveys — have become the preferred data collection method for many customer satisfaction and staff satisfaction surveys, as well as product and service feedback and conference evaluations within many business-to-business markets.
There are many different reasons for conducting online surveys including cost savings, time savings and improved data accuracy levels through automatic routing. Today, most e-surveys are completed by invitation and this would typically be through an e-mailed invitation.
Depth It is easier to maintain the interest of respondents for a longer period of time in face-to-face interviews. Greater accuracy In a face-to-face interview respondents can look up information and products can be examined. The Quantitative data collection methods , rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. They produce results that are easy to summarize, compare, and generalize. Depending on the research question, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments.
If this is not feasible, the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics in order to statistically control for their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable.
If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants. Typical quantitative data gathering strategies include: In Quantitative research survey research ,interviews are more structured than in Qualitative research. In a structured interview,the researcher asks a standard set of questions and nothing more.
Leedy and Ormrod, Face -to -face interviews have a distinct advantage of enabling the researcher to establish rapport with potential partiocipants and therefor gain their cooperation. These interviews yield highest response rates in survey research. They also allow the researcher to clarify ambiguous answers and when appropriate, seek follow-up information. Disadvantages include impractical when large samples are involved time consuming and expensive. Telephone interviews are less time consuming and less expensive and the researcher has ready access to anyone on the planet who hasa telephone.
Disadvantages are that the response rate is not as high as the face-to- face interview but cosiderably higher than the mailed questionnaire. The sample may be biased to the extent that people without phones are part of the population about whom the researcher wants to draw inferences. This method saves time involved in processing the data, as well as saving the interviewer from carrying around hundreds of questionnaires. However, this type of data collection method can be expensive to set up and requires that interviewers have computer and typing skills.
Paper-pencil-questionnaires can be sent to a large number of people and saves the researcher time and money. People are more truthful while responding to the questionnaires regarding controversial issues in particular due to the fact that their responses are anonymous.
But they also have drawbacks. Majority of the people who receive questionnaires don't return them and those who do might not be representative of the originally selected sample.
A new and inevitably growing methodology is the use of Internet based research. This would mean receiving an e-mail on which you would click on an address that would take you to a secure web-site to fill in a questionnaire. This type of research is often quicker and less detailed. Some disadvantages of this method include the exclusion of people who do not have a computer or are unable to access a computer. Also the validity of such surveys are in question as people might be in a hurry to complete it and so might not give accurate responses.
Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data.
The purpose of this page is to describe important data collection methods used in Research.. Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results.
The data collection component of research is common to all fields of study including physical and social sciences, humanities, business, etc. While methods vary by discipline, the emphasis on ensuring accurate and honest collection remains the same. In more details, in this part the author outlines the research strategy, the research method, the research approach, the methods of data collection, the selection of the sample, the research.
Chapter 9-METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION 1. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION 2. What is data collection? The process by which the researcher collects the information needed to answer the research . 45 whereas qualitative work (small q) refers to open-ended data collection methods such as indepth interviews embedded in structured research.